Courses

Dual Enrollment courses offered in the high schools are official St. Thomas University courses. They are listed in the St. Thomas University Undergraduate Catalog and follow the same curriculum as the course taught on the St. Thomas University campus. If you plan to attend St. Thomas University, the credits you earn count toward general education or other requirements. If you plan to go to another institution, the credits are transferable to many other colleges and universities accross the United States.

For information on course credit and learning outcomes, visit the Florida Department of Education Statewide Course Numbering System website (https://flscns.fldoe.org/PbInstituteCourseSearch.aspx) and search for the course. For more information about each course, including prerequisites, click on a course title below. 


Science Courses:

BSC 1010 (formerly BIO 108) Principles of Biology I
Biology 1010 is the first part of a two-semester sequence introducing science majors to the principles of modern biology and the cell doctrine. Cellular structures and functions are studied, including the subcellular organelles, membrane composition, and transport, as well as cellular metabolism and synthesis. In addition, reproduction and human genetics are explored. The molecular basis of nucleic acids and DNA is incorporated along with the study of macromolecules and fundamental biochemistry. Corequisites: BSC 1010L, MAC 1140, ENC 1101, CHM 1025
BSC 1010L (formerly BIO 108L) Laboratory
Biology laboratory is designed to complement the course materials taught in Biology 108 lecture. Students will gain valuable hands-on experience in the laboratory through the study of enzyme activity, photosynthesis, cell division, and genetics. Discussion of scientific issues will be promoted and the development of the student’s scientific reasoning will be emphasized. Corequisite: BSC 1010 - Laboratory Fee
BSC 1011 (formerly BIO 109) Principles of Biology II
The second course in the two-part sequence of introductory biology for science majors. The organ systems of plants and animals are studied in relation to their form, function, interdependency, and homeostasis. Emphasis is placed on transport and absorption systems, gas exchange mechanisms, hormonal regulation, nervous integration, and innate behavior. The evolutionary history, development and classification of biological diversity are explored. The course concludes with the biology of populations and ecology. Prerequisite: BSC 1010 - Corequisites: BSC 1011L, MAC 1140, ENC 1101, CHM 1025
BSC 1011L (formerly BIO 109L) Laboratory
This laboratory is designed to complement the course material taught in Biology 109 lecture. Upon completion of this course, students will have a working knowledge of plant and animal diversity including their structure and function. Valuable hands-on experience in the laboratory is acquired through dissections of small animals and the study of ecology. Corequisite: BSC 1011 - Laboratory Fee
BSC 2083 (formerly BIO 230) Anatomy
An introduction and survey of gross human anatomy for premedical students and biology majors with a laboratory requirement. Familiarity with the structure of the human body and the way in which it functions is achieved by systematic study of prospected models with accompanying laboratory demonstrations. Hands-on dissecting experience is an included exercise. The major human organ systems are explored including circulatory, digestive, integumentary, lymphatic, muscular, nervous, renal, reproductive, respiratory and skeletal. Prerequisite: BSC 1011 – Corequisite: BSC 2083L
BSC 2083L (formerly BIO 230L) Laboratory
Human Anatomy Lab is designed to complement the anatomy lecture series. Through hands-on practical experience, dissection techniques are illustrated in studying the various anatomical structures. Corequisite: BSC 2083- Laboratory Fee
BSC 2084C (formerly BIO 232) Human Anatomy & Physiology I
In this course, the molecular, cellular and tissue levels of organization within the human body, the relationship of the body's systems to one another, the physiologic processes responsible for maintaining homeostasis, and the variations from normal that may cause disease will be studied.
BSC 2086C (formerly BIO 233) Human Anatomy & Physiology II
The course is a continuation of Human Anatomy and Physiology I. In this course, the structure of the body’s various systems and how the structure of organs often determines the functions it can perform will be explored.
CHM 1045 (formerly CHE 101) General Chemistry I
The fundamental laws of Chemistry; states of matter, atomic and molecular structure, the periodic table, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, theories of chemical bonding, and aqueous reactions, are presented. Prerequisites: MAT 113 or Equivalent and CHM 1025 or Equivalent - Corequisite: CHM 1045L
CHM 1045L (formerly CHE 101L) Laboratory: General Chemistry I
This laboratory course is designed to complement the lecture course in General Chemistry I by allowing the student to verify and complement his or her knowledge of Chemistry through hands-on experimentation. Experiments in matter measurement, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and molecular structure are performed. Students become acquainted with the basic operations of the chemistry lab that will provide skill in the handling of chemicals and reagents. Corequisite: CHM 1045 – Laboratory fee
CHM 1046 (formerly CHE 102) General Chemistry II
A continuation of CHM 1045; gas laws, solutions, intermolecular forces, redox reactions, reaction kinetics and equilibria, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, acids and bases, nuclear chemistry, descriptive chemistry. Prerequisites: CHM 1045 and CHM 1045L - Corequisite: CHM 1046L
CHM 1046L (formerly CHE 102L) Laboratory: General Chemistry II
This laboratory course is designed to complement the lecture course in General Chemistry II by allowing the student to verify and complement his or her knowledge of Chemistry through hands-on experimentation. Experiments in gas laws, solutions, reaction kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and acid and bases are performed. Corequisite: CHM 1046 - Laboratory Fee
PHY 2053 (formerly PHY 101) College Physics I
College algebra-based physics. This is the first part of a one-year physics sequence. It provides an introduction to classical mechanics, including the motion of particles and rigid bodies, fluids, the general description of waves, kinetic theory of gases, temperature, heat, and elementary thermodynamics. Must be taken concurrently with PHY 2053L. Prerequisites: PHY 1055 and MAC 1157 - Corequisite: PHY 2053L
PHY 2054 (formerly PHY 102) College Physics II
This course is the second part of a one-year physics sequence. It covers the basic phenomena of electricity and magnetism, elements of circuits, electromagnetic waves, optics, and a preview of modern physics. Must be taken concurrently with PHY 2054L. Prerequisites: PHY 2053 and PHY 2053L - Corequisite: PHY 2054L
PHY 2054L (formerly PHY 102L) College Physics II Laboratory
Laboratories are designed to complement lecture materials and provide the students with hands-on experience. Corequisite: PHY 2054 - Laboratory Fee
PHY 2048 (formerly PHY 207) University Physics I
The first part of a one-year, calculus-based physics sequence. Topics include mechanics (units, physical quantities, motion, kinematics, force, dynamics, Newton’s Laws, work and energy, collisions, and rotation of a rigid body), equilibrium, simple harmonic motion, fluid mechanics (density, pressure, buoyancy, flow, Bernoulli’s Equation), heat (temperature and thermal expansion), and the laws of thermodynamics. Prerequisite: MAC 2312 - Corequisite: PHY 2048L
PHY 2048L (formerly PHY 207L) Laboratory: University Physics I
Laboratories are designed to complement lecture materials and provide the students with hands-on experience. Corequisite: PHY 2048 - Laboratory Fee
MET 1010 (formerly SCI 112) Introduction to Meteorology
A study of the earth-atmosphere connection and the environment it sustains. Attention is paid to the hydrologic cycle, storms; weather conditions and forecasts; climate, pollution and possible global climate changes. It provides a basic understanding of meteorological concepts in non-mathematical fashion while maintaining scientific integrity. The course stimulates curiosity and answers questions about the weather that arise in day-to-day life by providing insight into the working of the atmosphere. This course is intended for non-science majors and includes a laboratory component. Prerequisite: MAT 100A or equivalent
AST 1002 (formerly SCI 114) Astronomy
This course is an introductory course in astrophysics and provides a brief and descriptive treatment of the universe and its contents. The course includes some history of astronomy, and basic physical laws are presented along with explanations of basic astronomical events. The emphasis is on our present understanding of energy and matter in space. This is an introductory science course with no university level prerequisites and is intended for non-science majors. This course includes a laboratory component. Prerequisite: MAT 100A or equivalent
OCB 2000 (formerly SCI 200) Marine Biology
Covers major issues of oceanography; dealing with the physical geography and chemistry, as well as the biology of the world’s oceans. Students study the morphology, taxonomic and life-history characteristics of marine organisms in subtropical Florida waters. Ecologically important issues are covered, such as extinction, genetic biodiversity, and habitats preservation of environments of special interest: coral reefs, sea grass beds, mangroves, pelagic, benthic and intertidal communities.
BSC 2250 (formerly SCI 242) Ecology
The study of the dynamic interactions of biological organisms with their edaphic and atmospheric environments. All levels of trophic interdependence are studied, from populations, communities and ecosystems, to the biosphere, covering both the plant and animal dimensions. Modern methods of quantifying ecologically significant impacts in determining the vitality and stability of ecosystems are explored. Special communities of local interest are studied, including coral reef, coastal savanna, lentic, lotic, hammock, everglades, temperate, and intertidal communities. Subjects of particular concern to South Florida are covered, including: introduced species, species extinction, aquifer, wildlife and game fish legislation, state protected species, acid rain, ozone, and the greenhouse effect.


Business Courses:

BUL 2241 (formerly BUS 220) Business Law I
An introduction to legal procedures from the perspective of business enterprises, including advertising; antitrust; bankruptcy; consumer rights; contracts; corporations; credit; employment; environment, health, and safety; labor; products liability; property; securities; technology; trade; transportation; and other forms of government regulation of business. Prerequisite: GEB 1013
GEB 1013 (formerly BUS 120) Principles of Business and Environmental Administration
A survey course in the principles underlying the management of all types of organizations, including objectives, policies, organization structure, coordination, control procedures, and environmental issues. Case studies are used extensively.


Computer Science Courses:

COP 1822 (formerly CIS 103) Introduction to Web Page Design
An introduction to planning and creating websites. Topics include Dreamweaver; web design techniques; personal versus professional websites and; designing and building websites. It serves as a preparation for higher-level courses on the subject. Prerequisites: Knowledge of MS Word (or equivalent) & PowerPoint - Laboratory Fee
COP 1332 (formerly CIS 104) Introduction to Computer Programming/Visual Basic
An introduction to computers: computer structure and organization, algorithms, flowcharts, and programming. Visual Basic programming applications for science and business problems and computer solutions to various numerical and non-numerical problems. This course requires no previous knowledge and may be taken by students in various fields. Laboratory Fee
CIS 2000 (formerly CIS 201) Survey of Programming Languages
This course introduces students to various topics in Information Technology to provide an overview of what is available and used in the technology world today. Topics include Functional, Object Oriented, and Scripting languages (C, C++/Java, C#, Perl/Python, Shell), Database Management Technologies, (SQL, Oracle, MySQL), Web Server deployment options (UNIX, LINUX, Apache, ASP.net) and Web Site Design and Development (JavaScript, AJAX, XML, HTML). Students should have a working knowledge of at least one high-level programming language. Laboratory Fee
CGS 1060 (formerly CIS 205) Microcomputer Applications
The use of microcomputers for business and personal use are covered in this course. Topics include: learning how to use a microcomputer for presentation software, library research and spreadsheet applications. Word processing knowledge is required. Prerequisite: Knowledge of word processing - Laboratory Fee
COP 2810 (formerly CIS 203) Web Programming
This course is intended to provide students with an understanding of the basic concepts and comprehensive programming experience in network. In this course, students will learn how to read and write efficient network program, how to debug and test them on server and client computers, and how to configure the server, which will reinforce the theory covered in each chapter.
COP 2224 (formerly CIS 235) Introduction to C++ Programming
An intensive introduction to programming and problem solving methods. Topics include data abstraction and encapsulation including stacks, queues, linked lists, binary trees, instruction to complexity and use of predefined collection classes. Laboratory Fee


Criminal Justice Course:

CCJ 1020 (formerly CRI 101) Introduction to Criminal Justice
A comprehensive overview of the philosophies and history of the three major areas in the criminal justice system: law enforcement, the judiciary and corrections. Included will be an assessment of the extent of crime and an evaluation of career opportunities. Required of all Criminal Justice majors.


Economics Course:

ECO 2013 (formerly ECO 201) Principles of Macroeconomics
A study of aggregate economic behavior including the role of government, monetary and fiscal policy, national income, economic growth, inflation, and full employment.


English Courses:

ENC 1101 (formerly ENG 101) Composition
Oral and written communication of impressions and judgments upon assigned readings in the essay and allied genres. The course emphasizes the building of an active vocabulary and on correct sentence and paragraph structure. Writing a research paper is required. This course meets the requirements of the State of Florida “Gordon Rule.”
ENC 1102 (formerly ENG 102) Composition and Literature
Readings in poetry, prose fiction, and dramatic forms. The course enhances written skills developed in ENC 1101 through papers and examinations on assigned readings and substantial in-class writing experiences. This course meets the requirements of the State of Florida “Gordon Rule.” Prerequisite: ENC 1101
ENL 2012 (formerly ENG 201) Survey of English Literature I
A study of English Literature in the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Neoclassical Era through readings selected to represent great writers, various literary forms, and significant currents of thought. This course provides both an introduction to literature and a background that will be useful in the study of other literatures and other fields of cultural history. Prerequisite: ENC 1102
ENL 2022 (formerly ENG 202) Survey of English Literature II
A study of English Literature in the Romantic, Victorian, and Modern periods through readings selected to represent great writers, various literary forms, and significant currents of thought. This course provides both an introduction to literature and a background that will be useful in the study of other literatures and other fields of cultural history. Prerequisite: ENC 1102
LIT 2110 (formerly HUM 209C/ENG 209C) Western Literary Masterpieces I
A course designed to acquaint students with the rich cultural heritage of the West, literary themes, and the continuity of literary traditions from the Ancient World to the Renaissance. Prerequisite: ENC 1102 or Permission of Instructor
LIT 2120 (formerly HUM 210C/ENG 210C) Western Literary Masterpieces II
A course designed to acquaint students with the rich cultural heritage of the West, literary themes, and the continuity of literary traditions from the Medieval World and Renaissance to the Modern Era. Prerequisite: ENC 1102 or Permission of Instructor
LIT 2123 (formerly HUM 211/ENG 211) Western Literary Masterpieces III
A course designed to acquaint students with the rich cultural heritage of the West, literary themes, and the continuity of literary traditions from the Modern and Contemporary Eras. Prerequisite: ENC 1102 or Permission of Instructor


History Courses:

EUH 1000 (formerly HIS 101) History of Western Civilization I
A survey of Western Civilization from the early civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia to the Renaissance, tracing the events that have shaped the development of Western Civilization.
EUH 1001 (formerly HIS 102) History of Western Civilization II
A survey of Western Civilization from the Renaissance to the Present, tracing events that have shaped the development of Western Civilization.
WOH 1012 (formerly HIS 105D) World Civilization I
A balanced picture of the history of the world as a complex process in which many branches of the human community have participated in the creation of a rich and diverse tapestry of human experience. This class will cover the major civilizations of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe up to the 15th Century. Emphasis will be placed on the distinctive character of the various cultures emerging from these areas.
WOH 1022 (formerly HIS 106D) World Civilization II
This course covers the 15th Century to the present, including the rise of the West; the growing global interdependence; the rise of internecine conflicts in areas as diverse as Africa, India, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe; and the rise in recent years of regional organizations such as The Arab League, Organization of African Unity, and the European Economic Community.
AMH 2010 (formerly HIS 201) United States History I
A consideration of the development of the United States from its colonial origins to the Civil War with an emphasis on the ideas, institutions, economic, social, and political forces that have contributed to this development.
AMH 2020 (formerly HIS 202) United States History II
A consideration of the development of the United States from the Civil War through the present, with an emphasis on the ideas, institutions, economic, social, and political forces that have contributed to this development.


Math Courses:

MGF 1106 (formerly MAT 109) Mathematics for the Liberal Arts
This course addresses levels of algorithmic processes, generalizations and problem solving within such areas as geometry, probability, statistics, algebra, sets, and logic. Areas of the CLAST/GENERAL KNOWLEDGE TEST mathematics examination will be addressed with emphasis in probability, statistics, logic and geometry. Prerequisite: MAT 100A or SAT quantitative score of 500 or placement test score of 85.
MAC 1140 (formerly MAT 181) Pre-calculus: Algebra
Functions, graphs, and equations: linear, quadratic, polynomial, logarithmic, and exponential. The algebra of functions, complex numbers, absolute value, radical equations, systems of linear equations, Cramer’s Rule, introduction to matrix operations, nonlinear systems, polynomial and radical inequalities with applications of above topics. Prerequisite: MAT 100A or SAT quantitative score of 500 or placement test score of 85.
MAC 1157 (formerly MAT 182) Pre-calculus: Trigonometry and Analytic Geometry
This course is designed for those students whose majors require Calculus I, Calculus II or any advanced mathematics. Topics include: Trigonometry functions, it relations and graphs, radian measures, functions of compound angles, solution of right and oblique triangles, solution of trigonometric equations, fundamental problems of analytic geometry, circles, parabolas, ellipses and hyperbolas, polar coordinates and parametric equations. Prerequisite: MAC 1140
STA 2023 (formerly MAT 205) Applied Statistics
Descriptive statistics; basic probability and distribution theory, point and interval estimation. Hypothesis testing, regression and correlation, chi-square and F distributions. Emphasis on applications to business, marketing and behavioral science. Prerequisite: MAT 100A or SAT quantitative score of 500 or placement test score of 85
MAC 2233 (formerly MAT 212) Calculus for Business, Economics, and Finance
Concepts of differential and integral calculus with emphasis on operational rather than theoretical viewpoints. Break-even and market equilibrium analysis. Differentiation of algebraic logarithmic and exponential functions. Techniques of integration and applications of definite integrals. Prerequisite: MAC 1140 or equivalent
MAC 2311 (formerly MAT 323) Calculus I
Functions, limits, and continuity; the derivative; techniques of differentiation; the chain rule; implicit differentiation; applications of differentiation; intervals of increase and decrease; concavity; relative extrema.; first and second derivative tests; maximum and minimum values of a function; integration; anti-derivatives; the indefinite integral; derivatives and integrals of logarithmic and exponential functions. Prerequisites: MAT 113
MAC 2312 (formerly MAT 233) Calculus II
Continuation of Calculus I. In this course students will use the integration theory to calculate length of a curve, area of a surface, volumes, as well as its application in Science. They will also use Infinite Series and Improper Integrals. Prerequisite: MAC 2311.
MAC 2313 (formerly MAT2313) Calculus III
Functions of two or more variables; limits and continuity; partial derivatives; gradients; maxima and minima of functions of two variables; multiples integrals; theorems of Green, Gauss, and Stokes. Prerequisite: MAC 2312
MAP 2302 (formerly MAT 306) Ordinary Differential Equations
An introductory course in differential equations aimed at developing solving and modeling skills. Different methods of solution of first and second order differential homogeneous and non-homogenous equations are discussed as well as systems of linear ordinary differential equations. Applications in biology, physics, earth science, and engineering. Prerequisite: MAC 2311 - Corequisite: MAC 2312


Political Science Courses:

POS 2041 (formerly POS 201) Introduction to American Government
A study of the national and state governments of the American constitutional system. Particular attention will be devoted to Congress, the Presidency, and the courts.


Psychology Courses:

PSY 2012 (formerly PSY 201) Introduction to Psychology
This course is designed to be an overview of the field of psychology, including topics such as memory and intelligence processes, interpersonal relations, motivation, psychological disorders and treatment, the effects of the media, and more.
DEP 2000 (formerly EDU 260) Human Growth and Development
An examination of the concepts, methods and problems of human development with consideration of both its psychological and psychosocial aspects; studies of the physical, intellectual, emotional, moral and social aspects of growth of the normal person. Emphasis on the psychology of learning, maturation, nature-nurture, cognition, perception, and personality.


Sociology Courses:

SYG 2000 (formerly SOC 201D) Principles of Sociology
An introduction to the sociological perspective and its systematic analyses of society, culture, social groups, social acts, and social change.


Spanish Courses:

SPN 1101 (formerly SPA 101) Introduction to Spanish I
Spanish for beginners. This course covers syntax, vocabulary, pronunciation, elementary reading, and composition.
SPN 1102C (formerly SPA 102) Introduction to Spanish II
A second course of Spanish for beginners. This course covers syntax, vocabulary, pronunciation, elementary reading, and composition. Prerequisite: SPA 101 or Permission of Instructor
SPN 2200 (formerly SPA 201) Intermediate Grammar, Composition, and Reading
Intensive review of grammar, syntax, structure, and orthography, with special attention given to the use of the subjunctive; translation and paraphrasing of selected reading materials. Prerequisite: SPA 102 or Permission of Instructor
SPN 2202C (formerly SPA 202) Intermediate Reading, Composition, and Conversation
Selected readings of intermediate level Spanish and Spanish-American works from which practice and perfection of speaking, reading, writing, and translation skills are also derived. Prerequisite: SPA 201 or Permission of Instructor
SPN 2342 (formerly SPA 203) Spanish Language and Grammar for Spanish Speakers I
This course includes correct use of vocabulary, pronunciation, sentence structure, orthography, and vocabulary expansion. Emphasis is placed on subtleties and idiomatic turns of the language to achieve greater proficiency in spoken and written Spanish. Prerequisite: Oral Ability to Communicate in Spanish
SPN 2603 (formerly SPA 204) Spanish Language and Grammar for Spanish Speakers II
A second course on the correct use of vocabulary, pronunciation, sentence structure, orthography, and vocabulary expansion. Emphasis is placed on subtleties and idiomatic turns of the language to achieve greater proficiency in spoken and written Spanish. Prerequisite: Oral Ability to Communicate in Spanish
SPW 2742 (formerly SPA 205) The Span-American Short Story
An introduction to the short story genre in modern Spanish American Literature, with selected readings by masters of the genre, this course explores the varied nature of the Spanish American short story, from the beginning of its literary form in the early 19th century to the 20th century boom authors.
SPW 2484 (formerly SPA 206) Peninsular Literature 20th Century
An introduction to all genres of Spain’s literature from the generation of 1898 to the present. Emphasis is placed on individual authors as well as the main trends of style and literary movements and criticism.


Sports Administration Courses:

SPB 1000 (formerly SPO 104) Introduction to Sports Administration
This introductory course is intended as an overview of sports administration with an emphasis on management principles, including personnel management, fiscal management, marketing and promotion, fundraising, media relations, facility management, and legal aspects. Various career paths are examined, and particular attention is given to the development of verbal and written communication skills.
PET 2302 (formerly SPO 212) Applied Sports Science
This course provides a sound basic knowledge of the human body and its functions, the care and prevention of injuries, and the responsibilities and relationships of those who administer sports programs. Practical experience is provided in injury management, athletic equipment, and the safety evaluation of facilities. There also will be discussions on pertinent issues such as drugs, liability, and record keeping. Prerequisite: SPB 1000


Religion Courses:

REL 1147 (formerly STM 106) Catholic Social Teaching
An introduction to the history and fundamental principles of Catholic Social Teaching as developed with particular reference to the documentary history since Rerum Novarum. The course will analyze and discuss key principles such as the dignity of the human person, subsidiarity, solidarity, God’s care for creation, and the preferential option for the poor.
REL 1483 (formerly STM 107) Christian Living
This course helps students to develop the Christian practice of discernment in ways that can be applied to their personal, professional and spiritual lives. It examines the concept of a vocation in its historical and spiritual dimensions and applies insights drawn from this material to the practice of living God’s will in our lives.
REL 2560 (formerly STM 200C) Introduction to Catholicism
An examination the foundations of Catholicism, including its theology, spirituality, art, and architecture, from historical and contemporary perspectives.
REL 2300 (formerly STM 210D) World Religions
An introduction and broad survey of the major faith traditions of the world, with particular emphasis on the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Eastern religious traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism are introduced.
REL 2750 (formerly STM 232C) Christian Moral Decision Making
An analysis of the ways in which Christian moral decisions can be made. This course involves experience in resolving difficult issues by use of case studies and development of skills in approaching ethical questions and in helping others to do so.
REL 2590 (formerly STM 240C) History of Christian Thought I
A study of the history of Christianity, with particular emphasis on its thought, from New Testament times to the Reformation.
REL 2591 (formerly STM 242) History of Christian Thought II
A study of the history of Christianity, with particular emphasis on its thought, from the Counter-Reformation to the present.
REL 2078 (formerly STM 272C) Christian Community
Addresses major theological and social questions in light of creation, grace, incarnation, sacramentality, ecumenism, and community. This course explores the interface between religion and culture, using the rich tradition of the Church’s social teaching as a guide.
REL 2079 (formerly REL 3190/formerly STM 322C) Sacrament and Symbol
An exploration of the many ways a community of faith expresses itself in public and private worship. This course considers the historical and anthropological understandings of ritual and symbol, as well as the historical development of sacramental practice in the Catholic Church. Prerequisite: ENC 1102