LL.M. Curriculum

LL.M. candidates will be required to earn 26 credits in approved courses. The first semester requires that students complete 12-credits of required introductory courses. The second semester includes 12-credits of specialized courses, and a seminar. Students are required to earn 2-academic credits by engaging in a faculty-supervised research and writing project and electives will be offered from which to choose for their remaining 2 credits. Students will be expected to complete their degrees within 36 months of initial enrollment in the School of Law.

LL.M. Courses

Aviation CybersecurityProfessor Michelle Hanlon
LLM 301 – 3 credits

This is a graduate-level distance-learning course. The course will examine cybersecurity risk in the aviation industry, as well as current, ongoing and proposed response strategies to mitigate such risk. Cybersecurity in respect of the aviation industry encompasses all areas of cybersecurity law from protection of data to the security of systems and networks. The advent and proliferation of so-called e-enabled aircraft—that is aircraft with networked systems—as well as the introduction of NextGen technology to manage the US national airspace system have produced a complex and rapidly changing cybersecurity environment. The bottom line is that the aviation industry, which already relies heavily on computer systems, is moving swiftly to adopt even more integrated and networked systems that— while enhancing efficiency and safety—create a multitude of new risk paradigms. Indeed, a recent PwC survey found that 85% of airline CEOs expressed concern over cybersecurity risk, compared to just 61% of CEOs on other industries; a risk that industry observers see as not being adequately addressed at this point in time. This course will look at all threat characteristics from aircraft development and construction to aircraft control, airline information services, passenger information and entertainment services and navigation and air traffic control. It will review and analyze strategic responses to these threats as proposed and promulgated by international and national governments, government agencies, regulators and trade groups including the US, the UK, the EU, the FAA, IATA and ICAO. The course will also examine legal strategies for prevention, mitigation, detection and reaction, as well as the role of the government and its relationship with other key stakeholders.

Cybercrime LawDr. Roy Balleste
LLM302 – 3 credits

This is a graduate-level distance-learning course. The course will examine the legal and policy issues related to cybersecurity, including the history and complex nature of computer-related crime and how societies have attempted to respond. Students will discuss the different types of cyber-criminals, including motives, rationale, and methods of attack. The course will evaluate the technology landscape in this dynamic area and will provide students with opportunities to discuss cutting-edge issues at the intersection of law, technology, and policy. Students will be presented with the challenge of a fast pace technological environment to highlight the tools necessary to identify problems in the world arising from the existing and perceived vulnerabilities. At the end of this course, participants should be able to, and offer informed opinions and potential solutions.

Cybersecurity Corporate PracticesProfessor Vanessa Henri
LLM 303 – 3 credits

This is a graduate-level distance-learning course. The course discusses the various impacts of information security risks on corporate practices, preparing students for tomorrow’s market as legal counsels or other similar business advising position. Specifically, this course is divided into three parts which can be simplified as the what, who, and how of cybersecurity corporate practices as it relates to their legal aspects. The what covers the sources of legal obligations and/or concerns for corporations; the who discusses the entities and individuals that are held accountable; and the how articulates the notions reviewed in this course into a specific case study. This course will feature prominent guest speakers discussing top of the market technologies and methodologies, while providing real-life examples from their practices.

Cybersecurity Law & PolicyDr. Roy Balleste
LLM 300 – 3 credits

This is a graduate-level distance-learning course. The course will examine the social and legal processes developed by governments, the private sector, and civil society to secure the Internet. The course is intended to introduce students to an evolving area of the law. Our society depends on a stable and safe Internet, and there is growing concern about the misuse of cyberspace. News of large-scale cybersecurity threats and cyber-attacks overshadow the daily life of governments, corporations, and individuals. The challenge at hand is one that threatens the peaceful utilization of cyberspace. With the increasing proliferation of mobile technologies and the growing real-time border-less exchange of information, cybersecurity has become a vital subject with international connotations that requires a global approach to find a solution. Cyber-attacks are a personal threat to all users of cyberspace, and impose great dangers to nation-states. The course will also examine the role played by nation-states and other stakeholders. The seminar will also consider the concept of cyber-power and cyber-war.

International LawDr. iur. Roza Pati
LLM 700 3 credits

This course offers a study of the role of authority in the decision-making processes of the world community, including both the basic constitutive process by which international law is made and applied and the public order established. Consideration is given to formal prescription and effective practice with respect to the participants in such processes (nation-states, international governmental organizations, multinational enterprises, and other private associations and individuals), arenas of interaction, bases of power (control over people, resources and institutions), practices, outcomes and effects. The principal emphasis is on the many roles of the nation-state.

International Privacy LawDr. Joanna Kulesza
LLM 304 – 3 credits

This is a graduate-level distance-learning course. The course will provide a general overview of international privacy law. It will start with a reference to human rights law and provide a background on the history of privacy as reflected in international treaties. It will then reflect the distinction between privacy and personal data protection, emphasizing the evolution of international lawmaking and regional jurisprudence. It will cover the work of the OECD, Council of Europe, and European Union. Particular emphasis will be put on trans-boundary data flows between Europe and the United States, as per the original Safe Harbor Agreement and, most recently, the Privacy Shield arrangement. The course will also cover references to extraterritorial effects of European data protection laws, in particular the General Data Protection Regulation impact on China and other non-European states. With a view of the program’s policy focus, the course will also include references to extralegal effects of privacy laws and the challenges posed by the multi-stakeholder model of internet governance with the Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers and Facebook as examples.

National Security & Space StrategyMaj. Ross Brown, USAF
LLM 305 – 3 credits

This is a graduate-level distance-learning course. The course will examine national security through the lens of cyber operations, outer space, and military conflict. The course is intended to introduce students to an evolving area of the law that is significantly impacted by technology, and to the new legal issues advanced technology presents in the realm of international conflict. State national security increasingly relies on outer space and cyberspace, and this course seeks to give students an understanding of emerging legal issues springing from that reliance. In addition to providing a background understanding of the sources and application of national security-related international law, topics will cover the major points of dispute in national security-related outer space law and how cyber interacts with those points of dispute.

Satellite & Space SecurityProfessor Gilles Doucet
LLM 306 – 3 credits

This is a graduate-level distance-learning course. The objective is to provide students with a comprehensive appreciation of the multi-disciplinary nature of satellite and space security: satellite operations, national security applications, space-cybersecurity law and space policy. The course will provide a foundational knowledge of the building blocks of space security, under the principle that a comprehensive understanding of space security law and policy issues requires a basic understanding of space operations, military applications and the increasingly critical role that satellites play in national security. Firstly the course will offer a general non-engineering description of the space environment and the applications of satellite systems, prioritizing national security roles. The course will introduce international space law, including satellite telecommunications law, as well as some aspects of national space law, with a particular emphasis on national security and military activities. Cybersecurity law and policy, as they relate to the space domain, will be addressed, since cybersecurity is an increasingly important component of satellite and space security. Finally, emerging legal and policy challenges of space security and cybersecurity for space operations will be presented. This course should be seen as a springboard to more focused studies on space law, cybersecurity law or international security studies.

Seminar Elective(s) – 2 credits

Students will have seminar electives from which to choose for their remaining 2 credits. For purposes of the LL.M., the seminar will require LL.M. students a scholarly research paper of at least 30-pages.

Schedule of Courses

Cybersecurity Law & Policy – LLM300
Cybersecurity Corporate Practices – LLM303
International Privacy Law – LLM304
Satellite & Space Security – LLM306

Cybersecurity Law & Policy – LLM300
Cybersecurity Corporate Practices – LLM303
International Privacy Law – LLM304
Satellite & Space Security – LLM306

Cybercrime Law – LLM302
National Security & Space Strategy – LLM305
International Law – LLM300
Aviation Cybersecurity – LLM301